Ngorongoro Crater is a true marvel and I believe unique in Africa; it is located between the lake Manyara National Park and the Serengeti. Ngorongoro crater was formed from an ancient volcano that erupted and then collapsed into the craters we see today. This is called a caldera and Ngorongoro Crater is the world’s largest [unbroken] caldera. It is thought that this volcano, before it erupted and collapsed, Ngorongoro stood taller than its close neighbor Mt Kilimanjaro.
The Ngorongoro crater floor is spread across one hundred square mile and is home to many thousands of animals. Ngorongoro Crater enjoys a year round water supply and so nearly all animals remain here as permanent residents. Ngorongoro Crater has the densest population of game in the whole of Africa; and it is possible to see the big five in one day. the area on Ngorongoro crater floor is often referred to as a mini Serengeti as it shares many of the habitats of this huge neighbor. Although rich with game the Ngorongoro crater floor has no giraffe, impala or topi. There are only a small number of tall acacia trees, this lack of grazing in the Ngorongoro crater can explain the absence of the giraffe but the absences of impala and topi is a mystery; especially as they are present in large numbers in the nearby Serengeti.
There are five habitats on the Ngorongoro crater floor, which as mentioned have echoes of the habitats of the Serengeti. In the south west is the Lerai Forest which gets its name from the tall yellow barked acacia. This Forest is home to baboons and vervet monkeys. There is also a small population of giant tusker bull elephants. These elephants are the biggest you will see in Tanzania. There are no breading herds of elephants here; in fact there are no female elephants in the crater. If you are lucky you may also catch a glimpse of the shy leopard lying along the branches of the acacia trees in this forest.
The best time to visit this forest is early in the morning. We recommend a 6h30 start into Ngorongoro Crater, if you are up to it, to be amongst the first into the crater. The animals are at their most active in a morning and an early start will be well rewarded. The Ngorongoro crater has been likened to a giant deep freeze in the early morning so wrap up warm for this early start.
Just off-centre is Lake Magadi – this is a soda lake and home to thousands of [migratory] flamingo’s. The central region is an area of short grass plains which is home to wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle.
In the south eastern and the north western areas of the Ngorongoro crater floor are seasonal swamps where hippo and many water birds abound.
The eastern section has the longer grasses where buffalo are present. These buffalo have dramatically increased over the past few decades; this is a direct result of humans leaving the crater and it reverting to its natural state. The grasses in this section are particularly suited to the buffalo.
There are over one hundred bird species found in the Ngorongoro Crater which are not present in the nearby Serengeti. The crater is also home to one of Tanzania’s last heads of black rhino. The other herd is found in the Serengeti. You are more likely to see the black rhino here in this small area, than in the vast Serengeti. There are just twenty-five rhino here but we been told numbers are increasing slowly.
Of the carnivores Ngorongoro Crater boasts lion, cheetah, hyena, seval, ratel, jackal and the bat eared fox. Cheetah have thrived here; especially over the past few years due to the increase of buffalo and the decrease in wildebeest. The regeneration of this area has been particularly favorable to the cheetah.
From 2006 the park fees double for this destination and also for the Serengeti and the Kilimanjaro National Park. Half day safaris will be enforced for Ngorongoro crater. This will result in most safaris taking two half-day safaris to visit Ngorongoro Crater. We would recommend you take one morning safari and start as early as possible. All the lodges in this area are perched high on the rime of the crater. These lodges make and ideal spot for relaxing and enjoying the view of the crater far bellow you.